1 The Checkers speech or Fund speech was an address made by Richard Nixon, the Republican vice presidential candidate and junior United States Senator from California, on television and radio on September 23, 1952. Senator Nixon had been accused of improprieties relating to a fund established by his backers to reimburse him for his political expenses. With his place on the Republican ticket in doubt, he flew to Los Angeles and delivered a half-hour television address in which he defended himself, attacked his opponents, and urged the audience to contact the Republican National Committee to tell it whether he should remain on the ticket. During the speech, he stated that regardless of what anyone said, he intended to keep one gift: a black-and-white dog named Checkers by the Nixon children, thus giving the address its name.
2 In Gō, the origin of heaven is the center of the board, located at (10, 10).
3 In Gō, five by five refers to a (5, 5) point in a corner, or a “go no go.” These points have strategic importance.
Five by five is also the best of twenty-five possible subjective responses used to describe the quality of communications, specifically the signal-to-noise ratio. As receiving stations move away from an analog radio transmitting site, the signal strength decreases gradually, causing the relative noise level to increase. The signal becomes increasingly difficult to understand until it can no longer be heard as anything other than static. By extension, five by five has come to mean “I understand you perfectly” in situations other than radio communications.