1 Baratiner: French; to chat up, sweet-talk (engage in small talk in order to seduce or convince).
2 Brown Bessie, the famous champion butter cow of the Chicago World’s Fair dairy test, averaged over eighteen kilograms (forty pounds) of milk a day for five months, and made 1.3 kilograms ( three pounds ) of butter a day.
3 It is believed that the devastating pandemic the Black Death entered Europe for the first time via Caffa in 1347, through the movements of the Golden Horde. After a protracted siege during which the Mongol army under Janibeg was reportedly withering from the disease, they catapulted the infected corpses over the city walls, infecting the inhabitants, in one of the first cases of biological warfare. Fleeing inhabitants may have carried the disease back to Italy, causing its spread across Europe.
4 Rievaulx Abbey was founded in 1132 by twelve monks from Clairvaux Abbey as a mission for the colonization of the north of England and Scotland. It was the first Cistercian abbey in the north. With time it became one of the great Cistercian abbeys of Yorkshire. Its remote location was ideal for the Cistercians, whose desire was to follow a strict life of prayer and self-sufficiency with little contact with the outside world.
5 The Black Death of 1348-9 had a devastating impact on numbers, and by the late fourteenth century there were only fourteen monks, three lay-brothers, and an abbot left at Rievaulx Abbey.
6 “In 1343 another well-born Prioress is in trouble at the house and the Archbishop issues a commission “to inquire into the truth of the articles urged against Katherine Mowbray and if her demerits required it to depose her, and the commission was repeated two years later, nothing apparently having been done.” - Eileen Power, Medieval English Nunneries, C.1275 to 1535, “Additional Notes to the Text,” p. 598.
“The famous chapter LXVI of the Benedictine Rule enunciated the principle that the professed monk should remain within the percents of his cloister and eschew all wandering in the world. It is clear, however, that the Rule allowed a certain latitude and that monks and nuns were to be allowed to leave their houses under certain conditions and for necessary causes."
- Eileen Power, Medieval English Nunneries, C.1275 to 1535, Chapter IX, “Fish Out of Water,” p. 341.
7 David Richard Berkowitz (born Richard David Falco; June 1, 1953), also known as the Son of Sam and the .44 Caliber Killer, is an American serial killer convicted of a series of shooting attacks that began in the summer of 1976. Perpetrated with a .44 caliber Bulldog revolver, the shootings continued for over a year, leaving six victims dead and seven others wounded. As the toll mounted, Berkowitz eluded a massive police manhunt while leaving brazen letters which promised further murders. Highly publicized in the press, the killings terrorized New York City and achieved worldwide notoriety.
8 The two dominant influences on the climate of the North York moors are the shelter against the worst of the moist westerly winds provided by the Pennines and the proximity of the North Sea. Late, chilly springs and warm summers are a feature of the area but there are often spells of fine autumn weather. Onshore winds in spring and early summer bring mists or low stratus clouds (known locally as sea frets) to the coasts and moors.